Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease identified by sensitivity of upper or lower airways, recurrent coughing and wheezing. The disease can occur at any age, but one third of cases occur in the first year of life. As with all allergic diseases, the incidence of this disease has increased in recent years. Spending long hours in closed environments and exposure to indoor allergens such as dust, mites, pests and cleaning-disinfection chemicals are blamed for the increase in this rise.
Narrowing of the airways and attacks in the form of crises are typical with this disease. A typical attack takes place as patients suffer non-microbial inflammation in the bronchi, secretions in the bronchi increase and the bronchial wall contracts. Many of the attacks are triggered by polluters like dust, smoke, odor and pollen. Asthma can also develop due to allergies.
What is allergic asthma?
This sub-type of the disease, which is more common in women, manifests itself especially in pollen seasons and depend on the geographical region you live in. This time is generally spring. It develops due to allergic factors and is mostly accompanied by hay fever.
What are the causes of asthma?
- A family history with asthma
- Inhalation of irritants, dust and chemicals
- Exposure to allergens during childhood
- Severe respiratory diseases during childhood
- Having a smoking mother during pregnancy
- Smoking or second-hand smoking
What are the symptoms of asthma?
Edema and increased secretion in the bronchi are common. These lead to cough, shortness of breath and sometimes chest pain. Because the secretions change place when you wake up from bed or lie down symptoms are more violent at night and morning. Complications may resolve spontaneously or turn severe enough to require hospitalization. The cough is usually dry and a whistling sound can be heard during inhalation and exhalation.
How is asthma diagnosed?
The physician evaluates the frequency of cough attacks, how many times a week they occur, whether the attack occurs during the day or night, the presence of asthma in the family and other allergic symptoms. The findings are best examined during an attack. Pulmonary function test, allergy test, nasal secretion test and X-ray are among the tests that can be performed.
How is asthma treated?
Treatment must be planned according to the severity of the disease and attacks. If the case is considered to be allergic, allergy medications must also be prescribed. Inhalers are used to comfort the patient during attacks. Cortisone plays an important role in treatment and can be administered both as spray or pills. The success of the treatment is determined by the reduction in the number of attacks the patient has.
What should asthmatic patients pay attention to?
- Remove the dust-catching items such as carpets, rugs, velvet curtains, plush toys from the house
- Replace wool or cotton mattresses and duvets with synthetic alternatives
- Wash your sheets and duvet covers at 50 degrees Celsius once a week.
- Use powerful cleaners for carpets
- Keep your house and office well ventilated
- Keep your car and house windows closed in spring if you are allergic
- If possible, don’t let pets at home
- Use masks during pollen season.
- Change and wash your clothes when you return home from outside.
- Do not smoke and do not stay in smoking-free places
- Asthma makes you more prone to respiratory diseases. Therefore, get vaccinated against flu in September-October every year
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